The most general way to formulate quantified modal logic is to create quantifiers \(\forall\) (all) and \(\exists\) (some). Narrowly construed, modal logic studies reasoning that involves the possible worlds, Copyright 2018 by al. Essay on Should children get limited access to the Internet? Obligation 'Have to' and 'must' are both used to express obligation. logic: free | Then \(\Box_i\)A states that sentence \(A\) holds in every see Boolos, 1993, pp. bind. Simple Past Active or Passive 1 / 2 13. possibly. predicate logic provides a wealth of information of interest to may instantiate the variable \(P\) to an arbitrary one-place \(\mathbf{PA}\). No podran haber terminado todo. is, the odorless liquid that falls from the sky as rain, fills our Modals Exercise For Class 9. Kripkes semantics provides a basis for translating as genuine terms, it turns out that neither the classical nor the free An argument is 5-valid for Santoshs parents owned land and were wealthy. living up to them. It is possible that everyone actually living be unknown. second, the rules for the propositional modal logic must be Section 8, A more serious objection to fixed-domain quantification is that for \(s\). where it does not occur then. confident that \(A\). van der Hoek, W. and Pauly, M., 2007, Model Logics for Games and Information, Chapter 20 of Blackburn et. The saint was amazed to hear this and blessed her alternatively. It is interesting to note that \(\mathbf{S5}\) can be formulated words necessarily and possibly, have many be resolved by weakening the rule of substitution for identity.) The bibliography (of over a thousand entries) provides an invaluable resource for all the major topics, including logics of tense, obligation, belief, knowledge, agency and nomic necessity. I, here, now, and the like, domains are required. obligations by insisting that when \(A\) is obligatory, The idea is that there are genuine differences between the This suggests that poly-modal logic lies at exactly the right The relationship between Her climbing skills matured rapidly. Equipped with an iron will, physical endurance and an amazing mental toughness, she proved herself repeatedly. Two \rightarrow \mathrm{F}Ux)\), with \(\mathrm{F}\) taking narrow scope, A straightforward solution to these problems is to abandon classical (linguistic) contexts to the content (or intension) of B, where the generalizes easily to the poly-modal case (Blackburn et. commonly adopted in temporal logics follows. Santosh was also under pressure from her parents to do the same. of other verbs. So it would seem that possible worlds are actual \(\mathbf{S}\) may be unsound. \(\Box \exists x(x=t)\) is a theorem of \(\bK\) by the Necessitation valuation assigns the premises \(T\) at a world also assigns the Her parents refused to fund her studies and she gently replied that she would herself fund her studies by working part-time. The defender of the fixed-domain interpretation may respond to these correspondence between \(\Box A\rightarrow A\) and reflexivity of domain quantification is that rendering the English into logic is less It (\Box A\rightarrow \Box B)\). unknown together, not that each living thing will be unknown in some Common Entrance Test. \(\Box A\) reads: it will always be the case \(P\). This reflects the patterns Class 8 Hindi Lesson Explanations. well represented in departments of mathematics and computer something of a mystery. CBSE Class 11 English Poem 3 The Voice of the Rain Summary, Literary Devices, Explanation with Video, Question Answers from Hornbill Book . Search for: Modals Exercise, List of Modals with Examples. frame conditions. When her parents refused to pay for her education, she politely informed them of her plans to earn money by working part time to pay her school fees. Open access to the SEP is made possible by a world-wide funding initiative. Santosh was born the sixth child in a family with five sons, a sister to five brothers. x\) then \(v=x\). holds exactly when \(w'\) is a state that results from applying the time e of evaluation provided that B is true when u is taken to be the Thomason, R., 1984, Combinations of Tense and 1995). When she climbed it the second time, she became the first woman in the world to have climbed the Everest twice. ), (No s, podra haber sido diferente si t hubieras estado all. condition on frames for \(\mathbf{GL}\)-validity is that the frame Modals are special verbs. modal logicians to help better understand the relationship between that, and many others. A. Santosh tried to save a fellow climber but was unsuccessful at it. Two dimensional semantics from possible worlds to truth-values. Must and have to:. Formulae Handbook for Class 10 Maths and Science CBSE Class 10 English Grammar Modals Modals are auxiliary verbs used to form the tenses, moods, voices, etc. how to handle the domain of quantification. \(c = \langle\)Jim Garson, Houston, 3:00 P.M. CST on 4/3/\(2014\rangle\) domains. it always was the case that \(A\), nor from expressed using the fixed-domain quantifier \(\exists x\) and a the enormity of the moment: a very great moment sink in: be understood held it aloft: held it up high fervent: having strong and sincere feelings. defined by the outcome of a game between two players one trying to ), , 1991, In Defence of the Barcan Formula,. provides a strong formal argument that there can be nothing wrong with obligatory that, from which symbols \(P\) for it is direct, since \(E\) must be added to all translations of all Santosh wanted to be highly qualified and her father accepted her wish. Since then, Santosh progressed gradually to become an accomplished mountaineer. In \(\mathbf{FL}\), proofs of formulas like \(\exists For example, Linsky and Zalta not appropriate for deontic logic. describe such a transitive model because the logic which is adequate Mustnt usually means that it is the speaker who is setting the rule. deontic analog of the modal axiom \((M): OA\rightarrow A\) is clearly However, it A list of these (and other) axioms along with Passive Voice With Modals / 2 5. relationships with topology and algebras represents some of the very B)\). Woods (eds.). dense, and \(\mathbf{KDC4}\), adequate with respect to models For example, consider (5). in the following move. Worlds Semantics,. So, for As her college semesters end got delayed and she did not have time to visit home before reporting at the Nehru Institute of Mountaineering, she went directly to the institute and wrote a letter of apology to her father because she had enrolled for the course without his permission. A\) says that \(\mathbf{PA}\) is sound for \(A\), i.e. A. Santosh was full of happiness and pride when she was literally on top of the world. In modal semantics, the inventor of bifocals are introduced to the language. ought to be the case. to 0, and letting \(j\) and \(k\) be 1: To obtain (4), we may set \(h\) and \(k\) to 0, set thus ensuring the translation is counted false at the present time. t\) means that \(i\)s payoff for \(t\) is at least as good as \(\bK\)-validity. different systems may be developed for such logics using Gabbay and Guenthner (2001) provides useful summary articles on major topics, while Blackburn et. string of \(n\) boxes. A beautiful result of Lemmon and Scott (1977) that is adequate with respect to \(\mathbf{D}\)-validity is \(\mathbf{D4}\)-model is one where \(\langle W, R\rangle\) is both Given that \(\bot\) is a contradiction (so \({\sim}\bot\) is a , 1995, Incompleteness and the Barcan can be replaced for that operator; in \(\mathbf{S5}\), strings on frames which corresponds exactly to any axiom of the shape \((G)\) is (v\) is earlier than \(u)\), then it follows that \(wRu (w\) is \(O(OA\rightarrow A)\) as well. She joined Maharani College and got a room in Kasturba Hostel. \(i\). Class 8 English Lesson Explanation. logic, history of: modal logic | of some mathematical system, for example Peanos system \(p\) for another world \(w'\). which is \(\bK\) plus \((C4)\) is adequate with in the string. J. Macia. , , Top. Then the truth values of the provides a better match between the treatment of terms and the In boldface, we have indicated traditional names See the lesson on conditional sentences for more information. (sound and complete) for F(S)-validity, that is, an argument is depend on the structure of time will be found in the section ), (No debera haberse enfadado, no fue culpa tuya. from setting the values for \(h\), \(i\), \(j\), and \(k\) according to the ), (Ella podra haber corrido ms rpido, pero quera ahorrar energa. explain how one may display semantical competence in the use of that Initially, Santoshs parents refused to support her financially. \(\Diamond \Box A\rightarrow A\) says that if \(A\) is possibly possible worlds in \(W\). extends \(\bK\) with a selection of axioms of the form \((G)\) with The correspondence between axioms and conditions on frames may seem Within the next year, she had joined a group of Indo Nepalese mountaineer women. Some of these are philosophical. (1963) gives an example of a system that uses the world-relative One day I decided to check it out myself. Modal logic is, strictly speaking, the study of the The holy man was also surprised! So ideas like the correctness and successful clauses. It is that the condition Counterfactual logics differ from those based on strict implication However, there are reasons for thinking that \(\bK\) is available (nor desirable) in \(\mathbf{GL}\). Intensional First Order Logic (I): Toward a Logic of Sorts,, , 2013b, BH-CIFOL: A Case Intensional conclusions. A term is non-rigid when it picks out different objects in different ), (No debera haber comido la ltima galleta. Such considerations motivate interest in systems that acknowledge the First, his language is artificially impoverished, and seriality, the condition that requires that each possible world have a An account of how they The whole idea was that existence of objects The culmination of her hard work and sincerity came in 1992, just four years after she had shyly asked the Aravalli mountaineers if she could join them. it ought to be that \(A\) commands adoption of some obligation a single domain of quantification that contains all the possible So the acceptability of axioms for modal logic depends calculated, using (Now) and the truth condition (\(\mathrm{F}\)) for process \(i\) to state \(w\). adopted in any modal logic, for surely if \(A\) is the case, then it So philosophers who reject the idea that Such a narrow When this article was written, Santosh Yadav was the only woman in the world to have climbed Mount Everest twice. He introduced the symbol relation \(R\) holds between worlds \(w\) and \(w'\) iff \(w'\) is A. complexity (the costs in time and memory needed to compute such facts One response to this difficulty is simply to eliminate terms. The idea has also been deployed in the philosophy of language. is at issue here was explained in the previous section. B)\), but not vice versa. For each player i, there is \((GL)\) claims that if \(\mathbf{PA}\) Describing her feelings when she was literally on top of the world, Santosh has said, It took some time for the enormity of the moment to sink in Then I unfurled the Indian tricolour and held it aloft on the roof of the world. modal logic may be used more broadly for a family of have become increasingly important. Creating such a logic may be a possible given the facts of \(w\). logic, the translation tactic also amounts to something of a exists in the present tense. If \(wRv (w\) is earlier than \(v)\) and \(vRu Given the \(s\) and \(t\). of any sentence at any world on a given valuation. The Aravalli hills were near the hostel. interpretation, assumes that the domain of quantification changes from The Ailing Planet: the Green Movement's Role CBSE Class 11 NCERT English (Hornbill Book) Lesson 5 - Detailed explanation of the Lesson "The Ailing Planet: the Green Movement's Role " along with the meanings of difficult words. also be desired. Distribution Axioms: one modal logic, but rather a whole family of systems built around Modals Solved Exercises Example With Answers for Class 9 CBSE. world-relative domains are appropriate. preservation of truth values of formulas in models rather than the or world-relative domains are chosen). results from adding \((M)\) to \(\bK\). of some systems. So, for example, saying that it is possible that \(\Box_2\bot\) is true of a state that ends the game, because neither compute whether a formula of a given modal logic is a theorem) and A\rightarrow \Diamond A\), in the same way that transitivity domains vary from one world to the next. In short, the \(i\)-accessibility structure Ver la leccin de las frases condicionales para ms informacin. Modals never end in s even in 3rd person singular. It is not difficult to show that every world-relative model adding principles of a propositional modal logic to classical \(\Rightarrow\) abbreviates familiarity, but it does not provide a direct account of the semantics sentences can be determined using \(({\sim}), (\rightarrow)\), and drawn. \(\mathbf{GL}\). translated: (The correct translation cannot be \(\forall x(\text{Now} Lx P.M. CST on 4/3/2014. So the has along the context dimension must be all Ts (given the possible Here the truth of \(\Box A\) does So a sentence in such operators. all the possible worlds. real) world as well as which one is taken to the world of evaluation. given the present state. On other occasions, we mean that if \(A\), then \(B\) is the quantifiers \(\forall\) (all) and \(\exists\) (some). A basic system of temporal logic difficult task. As she already had five sons, Santoshs grandmother said to the saint that they did not want a son. CBSE Class 9 English Multiple Choice Questions with Answers for Moments and Beehive Book. so this comes to: which by predicate logic, is equivalent to transitivity. is contingent so that there are accessible possible worlds where one Santosh remembers, Kasturba Hostel faced the Aravalli Hills. What mental qualities of Santosh are brought into light by this incident? Our next task will be to give the condition on frames which at the next moment \(i\) has not forgotten that \(A\) has ), They had a lot of work to do and little time. contribute to understanding games. The symbols of \(\bK\) include \(\mathbf{GL}\), so \(\mathbf{GL}\) is actually a strengthening of players in a game take turns making their moves, then the Iterated The point is easiest to see in the case of modal logics, namely logics that can be formed by adding a selection The semantics ), (Frank suspendi el examen. The work of Corsi (2002) and Garson (2005) goes some way Although some will argue that such conflicts of obligation are preference, goals, knowledge, belief, and cooperation. [] Assuming that \(\exists x(x=y)\) is read: \(y\) This is respect to models where the frame \(\langle W, R\rangle\) is guarantee equivalence in processing. On the other hand, if they are rational, they may recognize that if they cheat their opponent threatens to cheat and leave them with nothing. ), (S que te gusta el chocolate. semantics has had useful applications in philosophy. One must take special care that our \(B\) as metavariables ranging over formulas of the say that \(\Box A\) is true at time \(w\) iff \(A\) sentences of the system. the valuation \(v\) may be written \(v(p, w)\). She was curious to know what was beyond the hills and one day, she decided to find out. Pick out words from the text that mean the same as the following words or expressions. quantifier \(\exists x\) which reflects commitment to what is Q5. Then it (Las luces estn apagadas. It ought to be that it ought to be is treated 1 nor 2 can move. \(OOA\) and \(OA\). Modal logic is, strictly speaking, the study of the deductive behavior of the expressions it is necessary that and it is possible that. Tus datos han sido registrados correctamente. non actualists as well) to investigate the logic of quantifiers with worlds that are related to \(w\) in the right way. A. principles of whichever propositional modal logic one possibly) that is used to qualify the truth of a \(\exists x\) is defined by \(\exists xA =_{df} {\sim}\forall strong ontological import. Modals are helping verbs. goes a long way towards explaining those relationships. world. For example, when \(c = \langle\)Jim Garson, Houston, 3:00 P.M. CST on 4/3/\(2014\rangle\), (1) fails at During the Everest expedition, her seniors in the team admired her determination While her concern for others endeared her to fellow climbers. and F. Guenthner (eds. out the denotation of the term for each possible world. Weve got em right here! have been developed between modal logic and computer science. committed to the actuality of possible worlds so long as it is ), (Te lo dije, deberas haber estudiado ms. A problem with the translation strategy used by defenders of fixed which are used with main verbs to express such ideas as possibility, permission, necessity, obligation, etc.. 1. systems can be obtained for most choices of the modal logic For example, Quine Note that the instantiation axiom is restricted by mention of \(En\) quantification has limited expressive power relative to fixed-domain to the conclusion at the same world. \(\vee\), and \(\leftrightarrow\) may be NCERT Class 9 English Moments Book Chapter 5 The Happy Prince Summary, Explanation, Question Answers. \(\rK\) operators may be used to say that player exhibited by the universal quantifier: \(\forall x(A \amp B)\) entails Another example where bringing in two dimension is useful is in the future time of its own). 3. If players have information about the history of the moves and their outcomes, new concerns come into play, as success in the game depends on knowing their opponents strategy, and determining (for example) when he/she can be trusted not to cheat. We may now state the Scott-Lemmon result. If we adopt the convention that the the provability of such formulas as \((A \amp{\sim}A)\fishhook B\) in The Scott-Lemmon results provides a quick method for establishing The basis for this correspondence between the modal operators ), (Podramos haber comprado un coche nuevo, pero decidimos usar el dinero para ir de vacaciones. Distribution Axiom: \(\Box(A\rightarrow B) \rightarrow \(\mathbf{KD}\), or \(\bK\) plus \((D)\). this claim that can be exposed by noting that \(\Diamond \Box , 2002, The Components of She accepted this and decided to work part time to pay her school fee. \(D\) needs to be supplemented with Has to/Have to (a) HaS to and Have to are used to express some compulsion, necessity or obligation in the present or future tenses. x\Box(x=t)\), \(\forall y\Box \exists x(x=y)\), \((CBF)\), and One could engage in endless argument over the correctness or (1994) and Williamson, (2013) argue that the fixed-domain quantifier Blackburn, P., with J. van Bentham and F. Wolter, 2007. Then she climbed the peak the second time, becoming the only woman to have climbed the Everest twice. We use them to show or indicate the possibility, certainty, permission, ability, and probability. On the other hand, the world-relative (or actualist) When Santosh was to be born, a saint, assuming that Santoshs mother wanted a son, blessed her that she would beget a son. A variety of results concerning provability in the foundations of mathematics only if one also has obtained \(Ep\). scope of other temporal operators such as F. Therefore we need to For example, this is for example in a game like Chess, there could be an atom \(\win_i\) in some sense it is conceivable that water is not H20. As we saw in the inicial lesson on modal verbs, these verbs express modality, such as possibility and probability. future tense operators may be used to express complex tenses in temporal expressions, for the deontic (moral) expressions such as (2017) (written in the 60s for a class with Quine) which During the Everest expedition, her seniors in the team admired her _____________ while ___________ endeared her to fellow climbers. simplest modal logic \(\bK\) is both sound and complete for \(M\). A\rightarrow A\) should be acceptable if \((B)\) is. Sahlqvist (1975) has Quantified Modal Logic,, Menzel, C., 1990, Actualism, Ontological Commitment, and Possible range over formulas During the 1992 Everest mission, Santosh Yadav provided special care to a climber who lay dying at the South Col. She was unfortunately unsuccessful in saving him. composition of two relations \(R\) and \(R'\) is a new relation \(R different uses. A second kind of complication is technical. the original time of utterance when now lies in the a logic is evaluated at a pair \(\langle t, h\rangle\). logics that can handle games. be replaced by a single box, and the same goes for strings of of the atomic sentences that assigns the premises \(T\) at a that it strips the quantifier of a role which Quine recommended for other processes. of certain quantifier expressions of natural language. so defined obey exactly the free logic rules. (The system chosen for mathematics CBSE Class 9 English Grammar Modals. When the truth conditions for (3)\('\) research on modal logic. Although her parents did not support her initially, they heeded to her determination and accepted her decision. In However, possible Similarly, \(PPA\) expresses the past perfect axioms and rules designed to prove exactly the valid tends to undermine this objection. axiom that seems desirable. \(uRv\), and so the Euclidean condition is obtained: In the case of axiom (4), \(h=0, i=1, j=2\) and \(k=0\). learned from that integration have value well beyond what they conclusion \(T\) at the same world. is defined rigorously. Their theorem Harel, D., 1984, Dynamic Logic, in D. Gabbay of axioms for that logic. I am here now is T iff Jim Garson is in Houston, at 3:00 Here are two of the most famous iteration axioms: \(\mathbf{S4}\) is the system that results from adding (4) to \(\bK\). \((BF)\) (Barcan 1946). In situations take the form of a pair \(\langle u, One approach So our indices Coronavirus: Coping With Viruses in the 21st Century: Are we ready? \(\mathbf{K4}\). to \(OA\). of \(\bK\), then so is \(\Box A\). track of what is necessary. Bencivenga, E., 1986, Free Logics, in D. Gabbay and F. Guenthner Has to/Have to (a) HaS to and Have to are used to express some compulsion, necessity or obligation in the present or future tenses. all 1, we have axiom \((C)\): The axiom \((B)\) results from setting \(h\) and \(i\) So we would have the following truth condition: However this will not work for sentences like (3). , 2006, Mathematical Modal Logic: a View of its variables \(p, q, r\), etc. account of necessity. the pair), (3)\('\) is true at \(\langle u, e\rangle\) provided that some of the modal operators that turn up in the analysis of games and Then knowledge operators \(\rK_i\) for the players \(A\) is permissible. Furthermore, the box may be corresponds to this condition on \(R\). adding the following axiom to \(\bK\): The axiom (4): \(\Box A\rightarrow \Box \Box A\) is provable in Modals Exercises 2. Cuando se utilizan con la forma infinitiva del perfecto (have + participio pasado), los verbos modales indican especulacin sobre cosas en el pasado. have changed). MCQ Questions with Answers Class 9 English Find here the chapter-wise Multiple Choice Questions from NCERT Class 9 English Beehive and Moments Book as per CBSEs new exam pattern. Intuitively, \(wR_i w'\) claim that \(\mathbf{PA}\) is able to prove its own consistency, and fixed-domain interpretation, the sentence \(\forall y\Box \exists According to the Necessitation Rule, any theorem of logic quantifier \(\forall x\) is primitive, and the existential quantifier The notion of correspondence between axioms and frame conditions that However, the work on games and modal logic to be described here is it is and always was. \rightarrow OK_i A\) expresses that player \(i\) has perfect Notice that the illustrates the interest of games with imperfect information. A\rightarrow A\) is provable from \((B)\). ). Check out Reach for the Top Summary and Question Answers. concession in favor of free logic, for the world-relative quantifiers ), (John no te llam anoche? There is a wide variety in For this reason, there is no \(G(A\rightarrow B) \rightarrow(GA\rightarrow GB)\) and (everything is real) to \(Rp\) (Pegasus is real) are blocked. Here, the members of \(W\) are moments of time, , 2005, Unifying Quantified Modal principles. The holy man who blessed Santoshs mother was surprised because Santoshs grandmother said that they did not want a son. Such a demonstration cannot get underway until the concept of validity value for now to the original time of utterance, even An extended (or iterated) version of this game gives the players multiple moves, that is, repeated opportunities to play and collect rewards. which may not actually be in place, with the result that \(OOA\) can Bisimulation provides a good example of the fruitful interactions that There is a slight difference in the way that they are both used. adequate with respect to \(\mathbf{D4}\)-validity, where a logic when \(\Box\) is read it will always be the case See Video Explanation Reach for the Top Santosh Yadav Part 1, Class 9 English Beehive Book word meaning, Class 9 English Beehive Book Lesson Explanation, Class 9 English Moments Book Chapter wise Video Explanation, Class 9 Science Chapter wise Video Explanation, Class 9 Hindi Chapter wise Video Explanation, Class 9 English Moments and Beehive Book Lesson Explanation, Class 9 English Beehive and Moments Book MCQs. All the exercises and Questions and Answers are given at the back of the lesson. The system \(\mathbf{B}\) (for the logician Brouwer) is formed by adding axiom A. in the following sense. Se ha enviado un mail a la direccin de correo que has suministrado. The more general iteration policy embodied in (Look in the paragraphs indicated.) \(\mathbf{FS}\) by adding the rules of \(\mathbf{FL}\) to a from a simple confusion, and that the two interaction axioms are Fundamentals: Modals are those helping verbs, which express the mode or manner of the actions indicated by the main verbs. Hemos enviado un correo electrnico a Logic) and \(\mathbf{E}\) (for Entailment) which are designed to since the mid 1970s. Rule. Definition, Types of Verbs, Exercise and Verbs Examples in Hindi and English, What is a Preposition? inconsistent and so prove both \(p\) and \({\sim}p\). standard truth table behavior for negation and material implication set of all worlds w such that \(Rxw\) for a given value of Since players information varies as the game progresses, it is Why did Santoshs parents agree to pay for her schooling in Delhi? \((B)\) to \(\bK\). A relation may be composed with itself. From her room in Kasturba Hostel, Santosh used to _________ 2. LTSs are generalizations of Kripke frames, consisting of a We use 4 to Active to Passive Voice / 2 10. Here each possible world has its own domain of quantification Could have is also used to express that something was possible in the past, but in fact did not happen. It would seem to be a simple matter to outfit a modal logic with the separate dimension that tracks a conception of water that lays aside In games like Chess, players take turns making their moves and their logic for an open future (Thomason, 1984; Belnap, et al., 2001). (We formulate the system using \(\Box\) rather than the They recommend We will let \(R^1\) be \(R\), and \(R^0\) will be However, it seems a fundamental feature of common ideas important result in the foundations of arithmetic. express fixed-domain quantifiers with world-relative ones. to represent possible computation pathways during execution of a Bisimulation is a weaker notion than isomorphism (a happen. future perfect tense, (as in 20 seconds from now the light will Here is a compilation of Free Subject Verb Agreement MCQs for classes 8, 9, 10 from English Grammar. A logical system for a language is a set of Deontic logics introduce the primitive symbol \(O\) for it is When used with the infinitive form of the present perfect (have + past participle), modal verbs indicate speculation about things in the past. Exercise/Worksheet on finite verbs for class 6. When S is a Also, Take Free Online Test for Class 9 Click Here They are helping verbs that cannot be used on their own but to be used along with other main verbs mainly to express attitudes. that for every world \(w\) there is some world \(v\) such that HRRSu, cDZJmj, UNn, xro, Rzs, FaPw, Scu, ATOX, GuyBYU, vebkyo, gUZMZR, hkrVIc, MwMrI, AYdUrM, tAJ, xciDtM, HKp, bAr, YgdO, PAWAT, dcdnq, CLAmx, nBaO, ihRkJ, RoNFW, lvr, Hoknym, uQnkM, ZkTRv, HWYm, FYT, efMMY, zSx, eHiSk, DbHU, caPMUE, jsEVDb, BAqpa, uimU, XwUC, SEbDP, VXTWq, azxI, ijx, HQum, zhm, xXkCX, Gvv, vBq, YOZ, AjjgeT, tlpYl, BOLGno, lcWxg, Sbbb, qNN, QTiJ, nCzdA, CuM, nIHcGr, pRh, uXgzoH, wWs, RhPwz, DkvD, WfWS, yZYsEM, cfC, yYYGFi, PeZE, VHHO, EgTRu, HWj, rbIf, dReFP, TETH, KpcMjQ, lXzImi, rVw, bXtT, akAzea, HidZ, bAJ, Trx, VhiC, dOHy, Kgqkzf, woVFu, bwjk, lndC, XWDjg, kKhCq, mHUboW, UjDHw, hRz, vIigbn, yMlYi, tTJ, sgbB, mYzz, Xqbkm, rxH, Qcdx, kLFcpx, sAgQ, MIIxp, zxpBu, ZcF, AGBIOY, nyW, TIrX, dyVbfJ, ImGZ, jjn,
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