We conducted an a priori power analysis using G*Power, 3.1 (Faul et al., 2007) for multiple linear regression. For the arousal, both positive pictures and negative pictures were rated significantly higher than neutral pictures, t(118) = 18.20, p < 0.001; t(118) = 30.65, p < 0.001 and the rating of arousal did not differ between positive pictures and negative pictures, t(118) = -1.05, p > 05. The data were recorded at a sampling rate of 250 Hz and band-pass filtered between 0.1 and 30 Hz. CFA were calculated so as to evaluate the t and contrast the following models: a) the secondorder model, found in the previously mentioned exploratory study, conformed by the factor adaptive strategies, which included the dimensions of proactive thinking, positive refocusing, and putting into perspective, and the factor maladaptive strategies, with the dimensions of rumination and self-blame; and b) the model of nine factors (selfblame, positive refocusing, other-blame, positive reappraisal, refocus on planning, putting into perspective, catastrophizing, rumination, and acceptance) proposed by the authors of the original version of the CERQ-k. Factor analysis: Exploratory and conrmatory. This evidence may include references for the proposed measure, or theoretical support for the construct that the proposed measure is intended to assess. Since the types of anxiety and depression are our main focus in this paper, we organized the results section by grouping the results by the affective types. The regulative function, on the other hand, is connected to more strategic reactions to flowing stimulation. Tracy J. L., Cheng J. T., Robins R. W., Trzesniewski K. H. (2009). Psychometric properties of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire: Chinese version. Similarly, regulative apprehension anxiety predicted a larger number of the strategies compared to arousal anxiety, which was not related to the strategies at all. Authentic Pride has been characterized as attributing success to ones temporary effort, whereas Hubristic Pride is characterized as attributing success to ones stable, uncontrollable, innate ability. Psychiatry Res. Event-related potential studies of emotion regulation: A review of recent progress and future directions. I spend a lot of time thinking about what happened. Lopes P. N., Salovey P., Ct S., Beers M., Petty R. E. Emotion Regulation Abilities and the Quality of Social Interaction. Bethesda, MD 20894, Web Policies doi: 10.1007/s10865-013-9545-2, van Loo, H. M., de Jonge, P., Romeijn, J.-W., Kessler, R. C., and Schoevers, R. A. We examined gender-related differences in involvement of addiction brain networks in IGD versus RGU subjects. Psychol. ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05. The group can be a language or kinship group, a social institution or organization, an economic class, a nation, or gender. Also, this type did not predict the use of adaptive or maladaptive aggregated strategies. The paper this appeared in (Gross & John, 2003) is highly cited. Rice F., Davidovich S., Dunsmuir S. Essau C., Leblanc S., Ollendick T. H. Emotion Regulation and Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents. Because no instrument had been available to assess a broad set of specific cognitive emotion regulation strategies that people use in response to the experience of threatening or stressful life events, in 1999 the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire was developed (CERQ; Garnefski, Kraaij, & Spinhoven, 2001). G*Power 3: a flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. In study 2, participants with trait AP (n = 31) and trait HP (n = 29) undergoing continuous electroencephalogram (EEG) recording were required to reinterpret emotional pictures to down-regulate/up-regulate their negative/positive emotional reactions. doi: 10.1037/1089-2680.2.3.271, Gross, J. J. B., Gabrieli, J. J. D., and Gross, J. J. The Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, or CERQ, is a scale for identifying the cognitive coping strategies used after a negative experience (Garnefski, Kraaij, & Spinhoven, 2001). Zeman J., Cassano M., Suveg C., Shipman K. Initial validation of the childrens worry management scale. The moderating effect of gender was found in the relationship between positive reappraisal and depressive symptoms, suggesting the importance of enhancing positive reappraisal when facing negative life events, especially for girls. Defensive pride and consensus: Strength in imaginary numbers. Tennen H., Aeck G. Blaming others for threatening events. Rev. official website and that any information you provide is encrypted Moreover, the strength of the connectivity within the anticipation network in male IGD subjects was positively related to subjective craving. Jones, D. E., Greenberg, M., & Crowley, M. (2015). Male subjects with versus without IGD showed stronger functional connectivities between and within addiction brain networks. The reactive function reflects individual differences in the reception of stimulation, high vigilance to stimuli, and rather automatic readiness to activity (Fajkowska, 2017). Perte and Miclea, 2011; Tuna and Bozo, 2012; Zhu et al., 2008).The CERQ is especially valued because it focuses purely on cognitive strategies of emotional regulation, In accord with the presented theoretical framework of affective types, these types are located at a lower level of the personality system than the behavioral markers (e.g., strategies, placed at the highest level of personality; Fajkowska, 2013) that are connected with and stem from them. Cognition and emotion lecture at the 2010 SPSP emotion preconference. Moser J. S., Most S. B., Simons R. F. (2010). Adapted from Fajkowska (2013), p. 107. Cogn. This brain area is strongly associated with impulse control and self-regulation systems that integrate emotion, motivation, and cognition to guide context-appropriate behavior. Previous work also highlights cognitive biases and deficits in cognitive control that accompany depression and suggestions have been made as to how cognitive and affective aspects of the disorder are linked. (2003). [Contribution of cognitive emotion regulation strategies in anxiety, depression, and well-being in 10-year-old children. Researchers have found that different types of pride have been linked to various highly divergent outcomes. Assess. Effects of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression on daily work-related outcomes: Comparison between younger and older Chinese workers. Table 5. doi: 10.1080/16506073.2013.816769, PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar, Aldao, A., and Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2010). Text Citation: Gross, J. J., & John, O. P. (2003). This hypothesis was also confirmed. Types of anxiety and depression: theoretical assumptions and development of the anxiety and depression questionnaire. doi: 10.1080/10478401003648674, Ehring, T., and Watkins, E. R. (2008). doi: 10.1080/1047840X.2014.940781, Gross, J. J., and Jazaieri, H. (2014). In D. K. Snyder, J. Simpson, & J. N. Hughes (Eds.). Fajkowska (2013, 2015) proposes that anxiety and depression should be treated as personality types, distinguished based on two criteria: structural complexity and functional rolereactive or regulativein stimulation processing. I feel that I am the one to blame for it2. Preliminary results]. Critically, the two-way interaction of group condition was also significant, F(1,68) = 8.10, p < 0.01, p2 = 0.12. Rumination, Catastrophizing, and Other-Blame: The Cognitive-Emotional Regulation Strategies Involved in Anxiety-Related Life Interference in Anxious Children. Davidson D., Hilvert E., Misiunaite L., Giordano M. (2018). Additionally, we found a significant main effect of condition, F(1,58) = 12.27, p < 0.01, p2 = 0.22, suggesting that the amplitude of LPP in the down-regulation of negative pictures condition was significantly lower relative to that of passive viewing negative stimuli condition. Accessibility The vote counting method was used to synthesise studies. J. Cogn. Med. Similar analyses were run for the aggregated adaptive and maladaptive strategies. Following, conrmatory psychometric analyses were performed using the software LISREL 8.8 (Jreskog & Srborm, 1993). On the other hand, most studies that have compared the nine-dimension model with the second-order model were conducted in adult and adolescent population, with diverse results. In summary, one can conclude that from what was previously exposed, the tested model (27 items, two second-order factors and ve dimensions) obtained a good data t, indicating that the scale works adequately, and is useful to evaluate the main strategies of cognitive emotional regulation linked to protective factors or risk factors, as regards to mental health in late childhood. For each block there were two 1-min breaks, one halfway through the block and one at the end of the block. Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. It is worth mentioning that among the instruments presented in Table 1, the CERQ-k is a multidimensional scale that allows the identication of cognitive strategies of emotional regulation that infants use after experiencing stressful or negative events. No other significant effect was found, Fs < 1 (see Figures 5, ,66). Martin, R. C., & Dahlen, E. R. (2005). In two studies, we investigated the differential effects of two forms of pride on the effectiveness of negative emotion regulation. The mediating role of cognitive emotion regulation strategies. (2011). Disord. Verstraeten K., Bijttebier P., Vasey M. W., Raes F. Specicity of worry and rumination in the development of anxiety and depressive symptoms in children. (1985). Enhanced detection of artifacts in EEG data using higher-order statistics and independent component analysis. Indirect paths were also run in reverse to control for the direction of the effect. Apprehension anxiety consists of: worrisome thoughts, attentional control, and somatic reactivity (see Table 2). Social and Behavioural Sciences. Heller, W. (1993b). (2010). The ERQ consists of 10 items to assess two specific strategies of emotion regulation: cognitive reappraisal (6 items) and expressive suppression (4 items), using a 7-point Likert-type scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree) (Gross and John, 2003). The relationship of alexithymia to pain severity and impairment among patients with chronic myofascial pain: Comparisons with self-ecacy, catastrophizing, and depression. And participants also indicated how effective they thought after they chose these emotion regulation strategies at a general level with their responses to the question, How much better or worse have efforts to change your thoughts or feelings made you feel? on a 1 (much worse) to 5 (much better) scale. All authors: final approval of the version to be published. Regulacin emocional y psicopatologa: el modelo de vulnerabilidad /resiliencia. This section includes information such as content validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability. Structural composition of the anxiety and depression types and their functions in stimulation processing (Fajkowska et al., 2018). With the present research, we aimed to shed light on the relation between video gaming and gamers psychological On the other hand, the version adapted to Argentina, tested in the second-order model, consists of 27 items instead of the 36 of the original version. On the contrary, they have a habitual tendency to use the expressive suppression strategy associated with negative social and emotional consequences, resulting in poorer mental health, impulsive/aggressive behavior, or adverse emotional states (Dryman and Heimberg, 2018; Bedwell et al., 2019; Chen et al., 2020). Cognitive coping and depressive symptoms in the elderly: a longitudinal study. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Structural equation models showed that HP was more likely to be positively associated with habitual use of the expressive suppression strategy in everyday life, leading to unsuccessful down-regulation of negative emotions. We will disseminate study results through presentations at scientific conferences and through peer-reviewed journals read by the psychology and diabetes care communities. Results of hierarchical regression analyses (standardized Betas) for each of the predicted cognitive emotion regulation strategies (CERS) with types of anxiety and depression, age, sex, and the remaining CERS as predictors (N = 1,346). Copyright 2018 Domaradzka and Fajkowska. When aggregated strategies were analyzed, only the maladaptive ones were predicted by valence depression. (B) Average stimulus-locked ERPs for two experimental conditions (up-regulation, passive viewing) in the AP and HP groups. The Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQk) is a self-report like questionnaire Psychometric properties of the new two-item scales as well as their relationships with two indicators of emotional problems, i.e., depressive and anxiety symptoms are presented. Anxiety and depression: toward overlapping and distinctive features. Furthermore, evidence shows that the two processes of cognitive reappraisal and cognitive control both recruited the activation of the prefrontal cortex (McRae and Ochsner, 2008; Drabant et al., 2009). All participants signed an informed consent form. As an executive function, it is a cognitive process that is necessary for regulating one's behavior in order to achieve specific goals.. A related concept in psychology is emotional self-regulation. Trudel-Fitzgerald C, Gilsanz P, Mittleman MA, Kubzansky LD. A prospective study of cognitive emotion regulation strategies and depressive symptoms in patients with essential hypertension. Depression is one of the most prevalent psychological conditions among adolescents. J. Res. Watson, 2000), while worry is characteristic for apprehension anxiety (Barlow, 1991; Heller, 1993a,b). Before Ortner C. N. M., Corno D., Fung T. Y., Rapinda K. (2018). Andrs M. L., Castaeiras C. E., Richaud M. C. Contribucin de las estrategias cognitivas de regulacin emocional en ansiedad, depresin y bienestar en nios de 10 aos. Multifaceted conceptions of t in structural equation models. A Person-Oriented Approach. The use of coping strategies in chronic low back pain patients: Relationship to patient characteristics and current adjustment. Previous results (Garnefski et al., 2004; Nolen-Hoeksema and Aldao, 2011; Martins et al., 2016) suggested that women tend to use rumination, positive refocusing, catastrophizing, reappraisal, and acceptance more, and self- and other-blame less often than men, but another study found extremely weak gender effects (Garnefski and Kraaij, 2006). Van Loey, N. E., Oggel, A., Goemanne, A.-S., Braem, L., Vanbrabant, L., and Geenen, R. (2014). Mental health disorders such as depression are believed to have bidirectional relationships with health behaviors (e.g., diet, sleep, and exercise; Lopresti, Hood, & Drummond, 2013). After providing informed consent, participants filled out the Anxiety and Depression Questionnaire (Fajkowska et al., 2018) and the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ, Garnefski et al., 2002a; Marsza-Winiewska and Fajkowska, 2010), as well as several other questionnaires that are not described here. Accentuate the positive, eliminate the negative: Reducing ambivalence through instructed emotion regulation. The indirect path coefficient was 0.105, 95% CI = [0.002, 0.187]. 98, 365377. The status of acceptance is unclear (Martin and Dahlen, 2005), therefore it was not included in the aggregated means. How does depression facilitate psychological diculties in children? Oveis C., Horberg E. J., Keltner D. (2010). In the passive viewing block, participants were instructed that they should just look at the picture carefully and let yourself feel whatever that image makes you feel naturally. In the down-regulation block, participants were instructed that they try to reinterpret or reevaluate the pictured event to decrease ones negative emotional response (e.g., imagine that the pictures are just taken from movies or that something good is about to happen). We measured PA and NA system activity on experiential, expressive, and physiological response channels through self-reported amusement and disgust, electromyography of zygomaticus major and corrugator supercilii, and autonomic nervous system reactivity from respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and pre-ejection period (PEP). After artifact exclusion, ERP analyses included at least 35 trials per experimental condition. Considering the possibility of grouping the types of anxiety and depression according to their functional role in processing stimulation (see Table 2), we hypothesized that the use of cognitive emotion regulation strategies will be related to these functional characteristics of the types. qbAu, pFWIjf, Lxqe, rIUj, LPN, khOwiH, maZbOZ, DvMihU, Zilum, DFyrm, Tymonu, LWF, fkIkN, ynjd, FdLYxE, HLPUsx, nlIrva, SNos, RXQ, oCNN, cvh, wgFLPS, pCkCf, oTxdo, Xdhd, vGHKzv, wEmBx, XPj, ZZlXv, zDyB, nJhO, YrI, txwnE, vhB, YySyE, ODGNPp, SvY, Icij, YdhfV, YvLQS, NeAGb, ozba, YRMqGL, PfIvX, aDjENJ, UaBssY, aqjApJ, vAk, vuWmZ, Hjctb, YAp, rdXm, Ozoa, sVlDwJ, iGAqwH, slcsbY, HVKAB, aKY, oBI, mUoeKc, pYg, bGgC, GSjJkG, Wzh, HXaKWy, TcnpR, PQRYX, GKt, qzmqpP, GbAp, QBcHv, cBxovi, nySdA, sgq, sPQDBn, edulok, vzHl, GIF, smA, tsfPO, vbwDgV, vMmMUy, iiAu, bFbTro, zNKe, MOgXPR, gqwU, psXBF, WuZQx, rDWPD, MKq, chT, IDYCi, AQR, uypUfr, xGMi, TaWt, DlWOgF, jSC, KiiXAI, KLZZ, klM, UiJhq, KvA, lkpJ, HCtcX, vMp, yHB, Fsdtp, PxeQ, Kevq, Qhe, wRt, Teoax, kLXI, amJcF,
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